The History of Wasco County

Imperial Stock Ranch Links

National Register and Historic Information

Ralph Lauren partnership with Imperial Ranch

Imperial Stock Ranch Headquarters Complex

The following information was supplied by Jeanie Carver. The Carvers are the current owners of the Imperial Stock Ranch located between Maupin and Shaniko in Wasco County, Oregon. This is the same information supplied to the U.S. Dept. of Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places.


United States Department of the Interior

National Park Service
National Register of Historic Places 
Continuation Sheet, Section number 8

The Imperial Stock Ranch Headquarters Complex is a complete and functioning example of the operational center of the large stock ranch empires of the West in the early 1900's. It is located in semi-arid range country approximately twelve miles southwest of Shaniko in Wasco County, Oregon. Founded by Richard Roland Hinton in the early 1870's, one of the earliest settlers to homestead in the area, he built it into the largest individual land and stock holdings in the county by the turn of the century. As the empire continued to grow, the Imperial Stock Ranch eventually became the largest individually owned ranch holdings in Oregon.

It is not only its bigness which makes the Imperial Stock Ranch significant. At a time when Oregon was fifth in the United States in wool production and second in sheep, 25 per cent of those products were being marketed out of northern Central Oregon. "Most of the raw wool originated in Central Oregon, especially the Shaniko area;" and the finest grades of wool being sought by eastern buyers were also being produced in the dry regions of Oregon's interior. (Lomax, pp. 202-205) There is evidence that early on, R. R. Hinton was importing breeding stock for his bands of sheep. He was experimenting with cross-breeding and developing what would become the Columbia breed of sheep. The breed was officially developed as a registered breed later in Idaho, in the few years prior to 1920. R. R. Hinton's presence east of the Cascades in the early 1870's, his notoriety as a sheepman in both numbers and quality of breed, and his impact on the settlement pattern of this region of Oregon are all significant under National Register Criteria A and B.

The nominated area of approximately twenty acres includes the domestic and operational nucleus of a sheep empire (Map) developed by Richard Roland Hinton and his son, James E. Hinton. R. R. Hinton first located in Wasco County in 1871, one year before the stage route came through the area going to the mines in Canyon City. He first appears on the Wasco County tax roll in 1873 with a total net worth of $163. He owned no land and only a few sheep. In 1874, James E. Hinton was born in the dugout cave where R. R. lived, approximately two miles down Hinton Creek from where the present ranch head-quarters complex is located. As tough as the homesteading scene was in this marginal country, R. R. must have been both hard-working and a shrewd businessman. Besides these qualities, he was also progressive in his thinking when it came to planning, settling and building for permanence. Where most of the stockmen coming east of the Cascades were itinerant, some without even a home base for operations, R. R. began to prove up on his homestead and accumulate stock simultaneously. He planned diligently to increase his land holdings. In 1883, he obtained title to his first piece of land, the original homestead of 160 acres where the nominated area is located. By 1895, R. R. held title to more than 2,000 acres and owned more than 5,000 head of sheep as well as some cattle. Between 1895 and 1900, his holdings were expanding rapidly; so that by the turn of the century, he held title to nearly 10,000 acres and was running more than 10,000 sheep. When the Columbia Southern Railroad reached Shaniko in 1901, R. R. had positioned himself to be a dominant player in the county and the state's commerce. He was the largest individual producer of wool and sheep in this region of Oregon. The Imperial Stock Ranch was then more than 15,000 acres of deeded land, with an equal number of sheep and several hundred head of registered cattle. In 1915, at 63 years of age, R. R. sold the Imperial Stock Ranch, all but his original homestead piece, to his son J. E. for one dollar. R. R. remained at the ranch until the late 1920's, and then retired to California until his death in 1932. J. E. Hinton continued to build the Imperial Stock Ranch holdings by increasing both land and stock. He was as hard-working, shrewd in business and driven as his father. Under J. E.'s leadership, the empire grew to just under 70,000 deeded acres in Wasco County alone, plus thousands of leased acres. It was carrying 25,000 to 35,000 head of sheep, more than 500 head of cattle and pasturing 100 head of horses. As J. E. Hinton was aging (71) and had no heirs, he sold a partnership interest to George Ward in 1945. Ward had been working on the ranch since the early 1930's. The 1945 census listed the Imperial Stock Ranch as the largest individually owned ranch in Oregon. Thus ended an era, and the historic period of significance. With the partnership, the 75 year Hinton proprietorship had ended.

The landscape in this part of North Central Oregon is semi-arid desert and broken canyon country. It is a portion of the Columbia Plateau, cut by rocky ridges and deep canyons. Its initial impression can be bleak. Early explorers described it as "a barren region, furrowed by immense canyons," saying it was suited to the "wandering savage and the lonely seeker." (Due and Rush, p. 11) Rainfall is limited, with eight to ten inches annual precipitation. Even so, there is excellent water for domestic use and livestock. Numerous springs are scattered throughout the canyons providing a substantial and consistent water supply.

The headquarters complex is set in a subirrigated valley along Hinton Creek, running south to north, and cover an area approximately 500 feet wide and 1900 feet long. This location is approximately two miles south of the dugout cave where R. R. lived in the early 1870's. It is presumed that R. R. Hinton moved to the present location because there was room for the size operation he envisioned and the water from a spring in the east bank of the creek was excellent. It was a central location amid agricultural fields lying along the creek, and built mostly on sloping ground not as suitable for farming. When dropping into the valley, the landscape remains unchanged since long before the historic period, with the headquarters complex appearing much as it did in the early 1900's. The row of poplars, planted circa 1900, which shade the domestic buildings are a dominant feature. Their foliage, as well as the orchard and alfalfa fields along the creek, are a visual contrast to the golden bunchgrass and sage covered hillsides.

The headquarters complex consists of eighteen buildings and structures, one historic site and several historic objects. Twelve of the buildings or structures are contributing. The dominant building is the Hinton House, completed in 1900. It was the showpiece of the empire, where the Hintons entertained and "held court" according to one source. (Brown) Descriptions of all contributing buildings and structures are included in Section 7. Sketches and photographs are also presented with this application. An exterior restoration of the Hinton House is near complete (1992-3).

As a group, the resources in the complex exemplify the success of R. R. Hinton, "a man who drastically altered the homesteading scene in southern Wasco County." (Rees, Shaniko, p. 21) R. R.'s story is representative of the American dream. A man who started with nothing and fought the battles of a harsh desert climate, marginal land, isolation, family tragedies and built his empire against the odds. He came like other homesteaders, lured by the opportunity to acquire free land. But unlike the typical homesteader, Hinton had the foresight and vision to think big. He would buy out many other homesteaders as they failed, and end up with thousands of acres. Instead of southern Wasco County being dotted with small homestead holdings, much of it would become a part of the Hinton empire. Hinton's impact on the settlement and character of this region of Wasco County, make him significant under National Register Criteria B. The complex demonstrates the self-reliant and frugal spirit that was R. R.'s background and which grew into the completeness of his ranching operation. The quantity and size of the buildings give testimony to how huge the Imperial Stock Ranch operation was. The Hinton House may at first seem too elegant and elaborate for a man with the meager beginnings of R. R., but is an indication of the social level which he attained by the 1900's. The Imperial Stock Ranch "is an imperial ranch in every sense of the word, as Mr. Hinton is now the largest individual land, sheep and cattle owner in Wasco County, his holdings and belongings being an empire within itself." (Shaniko Leader, p. 122) The fact that so many buildings remain today in good condition is evidence of R. R.'s planning for permanence. In addition, all of the operational buildings that contribute historically are in use today, many in the same capacity as in the period of significance. This is a tribute to the continued significance of this ranch's prominence in the local area and county since the late 1800's. Hinton had the resources as well as the foresight to build well. The buildings and structures have changed little since the historic period. Only the Hinton House had been modified greatly; and as mentioned earlier, the exterior restoration to near original will be complete by the time this application is submitted.

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Historical Resources on the Imperial Stock Ranch

The complex is documented in measured drawings prepared by Dan Grant. Included also are sketches of the contributing buildings only. Resources in the complex are as follows:

1. Hinton House Photos-- completed in 1900. Residence of Richard Roland Hinton until the late 1920's. Residence of James E. Hinton until the 1950's. Residence of George Ward until 1972. Currently vacant, with plans to use it as a guest facility. Contributing.

2. Guest House -- built shortly after the Hinton House. Residence for James E. Hinton until the 1920's. Also functioned as an office. During the Hinton-Ward era and after, housing for college students conducting research on sheep. Contributing.

3. Well Photo -- original well serving the Hinton House (c. 1900). Contributing.

4. Ice House Photo -- c. 1900. R. R. Hinton had 100 pounds of ice delivered to Shaniko by train from The Dalles each week. He would send a wagon to pick it up and bring it down to the ranch. (Hinton) Contributing.

5. Smoke House -- c. 1900. The ranch raised its own hogs and smoked the meat. R. R. had hogs as early as 1875, according to Wasco County Tax Rolls. Contributing.

6. Garage Photo -- c. 1912. The Hintons had automobiles before 1915. Probably the earliest in the area. Contributing.

7. Cook House -- built in 1940 to replace the original which burned. The original was a two story wooden structure with a dirt basement. The upper story was the bunk house. The existing cook house is located on the same site as the original two story building. It was a functioning cook house until the late 1960's, and housing for the ranch superintendent through the 1970's and 1980's. No longer serves in its historic role, instead is used as grandparents' housing. Contributing.

8. Bunk House -- built in 1940 to replace the original which burned. Capable of housing up to 25 men, normally eight to ten men were housed there full-time at the headquarters. It is still in use today to house ranch employees. Adapted to provide cooking facilities. Contributing.

9. Barn -- built prior to c. 1912. Original use was primarily to house work horses used in freighting. Contains four granaries, feeders for horses, hay storage and today, modified to include a tack room and museum room. Contributing.

10. Breaking Corral -- c. 1900. A particularly important element of the ranch prior to trucking, when the ranch was run with horses. There were still 100 horses on the ranch well into the 1950's. This structure and its associated fences, gates and pens give evidence of the quality and permanence with which R. R. Hinton built. Huge heavy posts were set, then steel rods that went through the gates bracketed through the posts. This prevented gates from sagging and deteriorating. It took significant resources and investment to build in this manner. The corral has been maintained through the years and has always been an essential resource in the workings of the ranch. Contributing.

11. Shearing Plant and 12. Sweating Shed Photo-- built before c. 1915. This is a two building unit which was a key in the operation and success of the empire. Built to accommodate 12 shearers who could work off one drive shaft powered by some sort of motor located outside the building. The drying shed would house approximately 500 sheep waiting to move through an alley and into the shearing plant. This unit functioned in shearing through the 1960's. Today, the drying shed is used for equipment storage. The shearing plant itself has functioned continuously to the present. In the photo display are two shearing photos -- one taken c. 1918 and one taken in 1993. Contributing.

13. Orchard Photo -- planted around the Hinton House on all but the west side, prior to 1910. Primarily apple trees, but some plum also remain on the east side. The south portion of the orchard was removed to make room for a new ranch house built in 1972. The orchard is another feature giving evidence of the self-sufficient pioneer spirit in R. R. Hinton. The orchard is still producing a good crop today. New trees have been added through the years, but some of the originals are still producing. Contributing.

14. Ranch House and Pool -- brick home built in 1972; currently, the main house for domestic use. The pool was built in the 1960's, and sits east of the new ranch house. It has been maintained and is functioning. Non-historic, non-contributing.

15. Shop -- three bay shop facility built in the late 1940's. Originally, the ranch had a blacksmith shop located close to where the shop now stands. It was torn down in 1953. Non-historic, non-contributing.

16. Grain Elevator Photo -- built in the late 1940's. It provided storage for the grain being produced, and the ability to take advantage of prices and bulk shipment. Still in use for grain storage today. Non-historic, non contributing.

17. Lambing Barn -- built in the 1970's. Sheep are now only a token flock of about 200 ewes. They are Columbias, developed commercially and run here by the Hintons for many years. This is a closed flock, descended from the historic period. All lambing has taken place here at the headquarters since the 1970's. During the period of significance, lambing took place at four large lambing camps located on the range. (It's a great field trip to visit one of those sites.) Non-historic, non-contributing.

18. Feedlot, Sorting Pens and Scales -- built in the early 1950's, and designed for size and convenience. They provide an environment for handling livestock efficiently. This facility allows for marketing directly off the ranch, and for marketing the hay produced on the ranch (through the calves) for maximum profits of both crops (hay and beef). Non-historic, non-contributing.

19. Hinton Automobile Photo -- Contributing Historic Object.

20. Jin Pole -- used in hand stacking hay. Contributing Historic Object.

21. Blacksmith Forge and Implements -- Contributing Historic Object.

22. Meat Wheel and Slaughterhouse Slab -- Contributing historic Object.

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Hinton Family History

Richard Roland Hinton was born February 28, 1852 in Missouri, enroute to Oregon by ox team. His parents located in the Willamette Valley as did nearly all settlers coming to Oregon at the time. The interior regions of Oregon were avoided because of difficult terrain, harsh climatic conditions and hostile Indians. At the age of 19, R. R. was looking to strike out on his own. The crowded conditions in the Willamette Valley, the Homestead Act of 1862, the vast regions of unclaimed land east of the Cascades, and the fact that there was traffic in the interior of Oregon due to the discovery of gold in the John Day country by the 1860's, all probably contributed to R. R. crossing the mountains to locate. R. R. was one of the earliest settlers to homestead so far south of The Dalles in the high plateau country. Homesteading did not really get going in the desert interiors of Oregon until after 1900.

R. R. settled on what would become Hinton Creek in the same year Joseph Sherar was homesteading at Bakeoven (1871). The Imperial Stock Ranch is located in what is known as the Bakeoven area. R. R. arrived with his packhorse and very little else. A year later, Andy Swift built the Bakeoven Inn and the Bakeoven stage stop began operating on The Dalles - Canyon City Military Road. Prior to that, most traffic was by pack train. Bakeoven was established as a post office by 1876 and had a blacksmith shop and livery barn to serve travelers. By 1877, stagecoach service was increased to twice weekly. Bakeoven was an important junction and overnight stop. By 1888, stage service through Bakeoven was six days per week. The town of Bakeoven would eventually become part of the Imperial Stock Ranch holdings. R. R. married Mary Emma Fitzpatrick in 1872, and brought his bride to the dugout cave that was his home about two miles down Hinton Creek from where his ranch headquarters would eventually be built. With only a few head of sheep in the beginning, he began the tough job of trying to "make it." Homesteading implied farming, and farming was difficult in such marginal country. Where many other homesteaders would fail, R. R. was successful in persevering and being able to adapt to the conditions. He established a diverse operation, keying on stock raising, but also producing hay to carry the stock through the winters, andproducing grain for sale. Many settlers invested in stock, but failed to provide for the sometimes hard winters. Time and again they would be wiped out. The early years were hard on the Hintons. R. R.'s son, James E., was born in the dugout cave in 1874. R. R. and Mary Emma also had a daughter Lillian, born in 1876. Mary Emma worked hard beside her husband. The hardships of pioneer life, toil and sacrifice took their toll, as she died at a young age in 1884. Mary Emma (Fitzpatrick) Hinton is buried in the Hinton Cemetery one mile north of the ranch headquarters.

During the early 1880's, the sheep industry was rapidly increasing in importance. Wool became one of Oregon's leading exports and sources of revenue. The dry interior regions were well-suited to raising sheep. The condition and quality of wool was excellent. Men like Hinton were improving their flocks. R. R. particularly was importing breeding stock, and began the building of a reputation that has carried forward to the present for fine grades and condition of wool coming from the Imperial Stock Ranch. This quote from the Shaniko Leader of 1902 gives great testimony. "Recently, he (R. R.) has turned his attention to cattle, and is following the lines he pursued with the sheep, getting the best blood obtainable regardless of price ... his judgement of cattle is as good and thorough as that shown in selecting his flocks." (p. 124) Even through the 1950's and 1960's when wool buyers (Columbia Scouring Mills for Pendleton Woolen Mills) typically did not buy the wool clips off individual ranches, their records show purchasing the wool clip off the Imperial Stock Ranch. A good relationship still exists today.

To insure long term availability of range for his stock, R. R. went about the business of acquiring land. This was at a period in history of some huge stock empires. However those empires were not built on deeded land. As the number of settlers increased, and as more and more land was being fenced and brought under the plow, the character of ranching began to change. R. R. shrewdly positioned himself as a landowner. He kept his operation diverse, running some cattle as well as sheep -- a rare combination in the latter days of the 1800's, when range wars were being fought between sheepmen and cattlemen. Eventually, he would also harvest thousands of acres of wheat; and wheat would inevitably overtake wool and lamb as top revenue export for Oregon. R. R. did more than acquire land to insure range for his stock, he also protected its condition; Because sheep normally have a herder present who moves them often, range grazed by sheep can be in excellent condition. This is not always true. However, "most of the best privately owned ranges east of the Cascades were sheep ranges until recent years." (Jackman and Long, p. 138) In the Hinton operation, the sheep were never in one area more than three days. (Sappington) The range on the Imperial Stock Ranch has always had the reputation of being in excellent shape and remains in near pristine condition today. This philosophy of caring for the land and having reverence for grasses and plants was R. R. Hinton's religion. (Hinton) There is much evidence of this in his ranching practices and his domestic life.

R. R. Hinton had built himself into a very prominent position as 1900 was approaching. The Columbia Southern Railroad was building into the interior of Oregon. The end of the line would be a newly created town of Shaniko. Shaniko's location would be less than fifteen miles from the ranch headquarters. He had quite an operational complex by then, and in 19OO, completed his new home. It was the showpiece of his empire. He was moving up in the business and social world. He had married Clara J. Bird from a prominent family in The Dalles, in 1886, and she would help influence the social circle in which the Hintons would move. R. R. and Clara had two children, Richard B. "Dickie" in 1890, and Mary Lulu in 1891.

Shaniko emerged as Wasco County's number one city for business and trade. Millions of pounds of wool and other products shipped out by train, and millions of dollars changed hands in a day. The Columbia Southern became one of the most financially productive short lines in the United States; and Shaniko became the "wool capital of the world." (Rees, Shaniko,-p. 35) Even though it was the railroad that made the difference, "credit for the rapid development of commerce when the railroad was built, must go to the homesteaders, sheepmen and ranchers who had settled in Central Oregon by 1898." (Rees, Shaniko, p. 2) The Imperial Stock Ranch and R. R. Hinton were very prominent players in the region.

Throughout the period of significance, the Imperial Stock Ranch was a community in itself. With 12 to 14 bands of sheep, representing up to 35,000 in number, cattle, horses, and up to 5,000 acres in crop, many men were required on the payroll. Even when sheep numbers were declining rapidly in Wasco County, from 329,000 in 1910 to 65,000 in 1940, and only 29,827 in 1945, the Imperial Stock Ranch continued as a sheep empire on an enormous scale. (Due and Rush, p. 152) Indeed, most of the county's inventory belonged to the Hintons. There were herders, packers, men doing the farming, cooks, camp tenders, chore boys, cowboys, a blacksmith, carpenter and more. Even the government trapper lived in the bunk house from the late 1920's into the late 1970's. He got free room and board, and had to send the ears to someone in the government to prove he was working. In fact, there were three government trappers on the ranch full time during a portion of the historic period. (Belozer) The sheep were on the home ranch from about October 1 until June 1. Then they would go to summer pastures leased from the Forest Service. This began in 1905. It took two weeks to trail them there, and two weeks to come home. The cattle and horses were on the home ranch year 'round. The Imperial Stock Ranch took care of much of its food needs with large gardens, an orchard, hogs and chickens besides sheep and beef, a slaughter house, smoke house and milk cows. They could store eight tons of groceries on the shelves in the basement of the cook house. There was a large walk-in meat locker in the basement as well (still is).

For the family of R. R. Hinton, the domestic scene was quite aristocratic by the period 1900 to 1945. They had a cook, servants and a little later, a chauffeur named Basil Littlepage. Besides the bounty of the ranch, the train coming into Shaniko made it possible to live quite a good life. They could have any type of specialty foods or luxuries of the day such as fresh seafood from the coast. The Hinton children did not go to public school, but were tutored on the ranch and then sent to private academies. James E. attended Bishop Scott Academy. Later on, Dickie went to Hills Military Academy and Mary Lulu attended St. Mary's Academy in Portland. There is no information on Lillie, other than she married J. L. Hollingshead in 1896. He became the first mayor of Antelope, Oregon.

The Hintons mingled in a select group. They were very close with Bishop Robert Paddock who would come and spend time at the ranch, sometimes staying a week or more. There was a close association with the William H. Moody family (son of ex-governor Zenas Moody) around whom much of Shaniko's social life centered. R. R. would send the car up to Shaniko to Pick up Mrs. Moody and bring her to the ranch. She instructed Mary Lulu in Piano on the baby grand piano in the living room of the Hinton home. Violet Melville lived at the Imperial Stock Ranch for years. She was a niece of Clara (Bird) Hinton and would eventually marry James E. Hinton. Violet was quite a socialite and a great friend to Mary Lulu. The girls would go to Portland for painting lessons. Another close friend was the William Borah family of Idaho. Violet gave many pieces of hand-painted china to Mrs. Borah. People would come to visit the Hintons, like the Melvilles or prominent bankers and others of that circle, and R. R. would send a rig up to Shaniko to pick them up. The Hintons had fine horses and fine clothes. The women of the Hinton family had their dresses tailored by the Shogren sisters of Portland. Both R. R. and J. E. were noted for their fine carriage and always wearing three piece suits, even when riding horseback or delivering supplies to a sheep camp. By 1915, the Hintons were traveling often and spending time in the winter in southern California. They stayed often at an old Victorian hotel in La Jolla where the wealthy went for a holiday. And yet, R. R. still had that frugal spirit upon which his work ethic and success were founded. He was always up early making his own coffee, working in the gardens or helping with the canning. According to his grandson, Bob Hinton, R. R. was good-natured, although dominating in his presence. And though he was extremely shrewd in business, he did not read or write well.

With all of this opulence around them, and the steady success of the Imperial Stock Ranch, who would guess the personal tragedies that were to come for the Hinton family.

Dickie Hinton was probably a disappointment to his father, as he developed a reputation for being on the wild side. R. R. thought marriage might settle him down, and encouraged him to marry Minnie Wakerlig. They were married in 1909. Within the first year, a son, Robert (Bobby) Hinton was born. It did not have any effect on Dickie, however, and soon he and Minnie were divorced. Bobby stayed in the Hinton home on the ranch and was raised by R. R. and Clara until he was twelve years old. Dickie reportedly never settled down, and was never involved with the ranching empire.

Mary Lulu met an even more tragic fate. It is difficult to discover the true circumstances of her death after so many years. R. R. gave only vague details to the newspapers at the time of her death in 1916, at 25 years of age. It is suggested she was mentally ill and either fell or jumped from an apartment window in Portland. Mary Brown, niece of Violet Melville Hinton, tells how Mary Lulu loved traveling to the city and had become rather unhappy at the ranch. She loved the shows, shopping and the social life. Mary Brown confirms Mary Lulu's death as suicide. Bobby Hinton, who was living on the ranch during those years and adored Mary Lulu, testifies that she was certainly not mentally ill. He reports she was beautiful and vivacious, but that she became pregnant. R. R. was against her marrying and refused to allow it. Bobby said it destroyed her and she committed suicide.

These were very stormy years for the Hintons. The culminating tragedy was the death of Clara (Bird) Hinton. The distress she experienced over the lives of her children and the death of Mary Lulu must have been great. In addition, Mary Brown testifies that Clara suffered from breast cancer, and it was not something openly discussed during that time period. Clara shot herself in the Hinton home in 1922.

James E. Hinton was dedicated to the Imperial Stock Ranch, working relentlessly. He was reportedly interested in Violet Melville, but she did not return his interest at the time. He married Leona Hayden in 1927, at age 53. Circumstances of that marriage are unknown. James E. Hinton married a second time in 1947, and this time it was to Violet Melville. J. E. remained actively involved in the operation of the ranch until the late 1960's. In 1967, at age 93, he sold his remaining interest in the ranch holdings to George Ward. James E. Hinton died in 1971.

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The Carver Ranch

Even though it has operated under a different name in the most recent 40 years, the landscape in this portion of Wasco County has supported the agricultural activities of the Imperial Stock Ranch for more than 120 years. Today, the headquarters complex remains in good to excellent condition. The buildings are basically unaltered, and are being maintained because of their continued use and their historic value.

The current ranch is approximately 30,000 acres. Principal ranching acivities include 1500 acres of wheat annually, about 200 lambs (Columbia Breed) per year for meat and wool, cattle, and hay.

As the present owners, we hold a love of history and of this part of Oregon. My husband's dream was always to ranch and be a part of this type of desert plateau country. To be able to live on this ranch is the fulfillment of a dream. Our preservation efforts on this ranch of both the land and the buildings, come from the appreciation in our hearts of the land, the native peoples who lived here first, and the tough-spirited pioneers who came after. The integrity and feeling associated with the physical resources and activities at the headquarters complex is truly historic. As McNeal stated when writing of the Bakeoven area, "post offices may come and post offices may go, but the Imperial Stock Ranch will go on forever." (McNeal, p. 262)

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An Illustrated History of Central Oregon. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Company. 1905.

Bartholomew, Florence. "65,000 Acre Job." Northwest Ruralite. Vol. 15, No. 9. September, 1968.

Belozer, John. Personal Interview. U.S.D.A. Government Trapper. November, 1993.

Blumenson, John J. - G. Identifying American Architecture. Nashville: American Association for State and Local History

Brown, Mary. Personal Interview. Born in 1909; niece of Violet Melville Hinton. October, 1993.

Carey, Charles Henry. History of Oregon. Chicago - Portland: Pioneer Historical Publishing Company. 1922.

Carver, Daniel. Personal Interview. As present owner, provided information about the ranch which came from conversations with George Ward during the purchase process and following. (Ward is deceased.)

Clark, Rosalind. Architecture Oregon Style. Portland: Professional Book Center,

Columbia Sheep. Upper Sandusky, Ohio: Columbia Sheep Breeders' Association. 1992

Due, John F., and Giles French. Rails to the Mid-Columbia Wheatlands: The Columbia Southern and Great Southern Railroads and the Development of Sherman and Wasco Counties, Oregon. Washington, D. C.University Press of America. 1979.

Due, John F., and Frances Juris Rush. Roads and-Rails South From the Columbia. Bend, Oregon: Maverick Publications, Inc. 1991.

"Funeral Rites Held for Richard Hinton." The Dalles Chronicle. March 3, 1932.

Gaston, Joseph. The Centennial History of Oregon -- 1811-1912. Vol. I. Chicago: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company. 1912.

Genealogical Forum of Portland, Oregon. Abstracts from Genealogical Material in Oregon Donation Land Claims, Vol. I. 1957.

Hampton, Rusty. Personal Interviews. Brother of Mary (Hampton) Ward. Their father financed George Ward in 1945, in purchasing the partnership in the Imperial Stock Ranch. June through November, 1993.

Harrell, Michael. Conducted research in Pendleton Woolen Mills and Columbia Scouring Mills Archives. October, 1993.

Harris, Bruce. The History of Wasco County. Unpublished, located in Wasco County Library. 1983.

Hinton, Robert (Bobby). Personal Interviews. Born in 1910, grandson of R. R. Hinton and Clara (Bird) Hinton. Numerous interviews between May and November of 1993; visited the ranch on August 7, 1993.

History of the Columbia River Valley From The Dalles to the Sea. Vol. II. Chicago: S. J. Clarke Publishing Company. 1912.

Hunt, Clarence N. "Sheep Ranching." Mid-Columbia Community Action Council, Inc., The Dalles. April - May, 1982.

Jackman, E. R., and R. A. Long. The Oregon Desert. Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton Printers, Ltd. 1973.

Lomax, Alfred L. Later Woolen Mills in Oregon. Portland: Binsford and Mort. 1974.

Lyman, Horace S. History of Oregon. New York: North Pacific Publishing Society. 1903.

Malarkey, Thomas Burgess, Sr. Excerpts of the Malarkey - Burgess - Tucker - Families. Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society. 1980.

Maupin Times Newspaper. Issues of 1914-1915. Located in the Maupin Library.

McAlester, Virginia and Lee. A Field Guide to American Houses. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1984.

McNeal, William H. History of Wasco County, Oregon. The Dalles: Wasco County Pioneers Association. 1950.

Nielsen, Lawrence E., Doug Newman and George McCart. Pioneer Roads in Central Oregon. Bend, Oregon: Maverick Publications. 1985.

Olsen, Ivan. Personal Interview. Born in 1908. Owned Shaniko store and had business dealings with J. E. Hinton. Worked some for R. R. Hinton when he was a boy. November, 1992.

Poppeliers, John C., S. Allen Chambers, Jr., Nancy B. Schwartz. What Style Is It? Washington, D. C.: The Preservation Press. 1983.

Potter, Miles F. Oregon's Golden Years. Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton Printers, Ltd. 1976.

Reeder, John. Personal Interview. Born in 1912. Long-time resident of Shaniko. Managed the grocery store there and handled the account with the Imperial Stock Ranch. October, 1993.

Rees, Helen Guyton. Schoolmarms. Portland: Binsford and Mort. 1983.

Rees, Helen Guyton. Shaniko, From Wool Capital to Ghost Town. Portland: Binsford and Mort. 1982.

Rees, Helen Guyton. Shaniko People. Portland: Binsford and Mort. 1983.

Sappington, Chuck. Written Testimony. Employed by the Imperial Stock Ranch in the early 1950's. October, 1993.

Scott, Harvey W. History of the Oregon Country, Vol. I. Cambridge: The Riverside Press. 1924.

Scott, Leslie M. Oregon Historical Society Quarterly, Vol. 33 (edited by Scott).

Salem: Statesman Publishing Company. 1932.

Shaniko Leader, Illustrated Annual. Vol. II, No. 38. Shaniko, Oregon. January, 1902. Available at the Oregon Historical Society.

Sherman County Deed Records. 1880 - 1945.

Sherman County Tax Rolls. 1880 - 1945.

Ward, Eric. Personal Interviews. Son of George Ward. October and November, 1993.

Wasco County Birth and Death Extracts. Wasco County Library.

Wasco County Deed Records. 1870 - present.

Wasco County Marriage Records. 1870 - 1950.

Wasco County Tax Rolls. 1865 - 1920.

Wasco County U. S. Census for 1880. Wasco County Library.

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